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The extra-modes method is herein detailed as a dramatically efficient tool to accomplish this paramount task.

Substructure's contribute to the aeroelastic response of the global system is expressed in terms of generalized parameters pertinent to additional and strategically defined modes capturing the substructure dynamics. After recalling the general formulation of the method, two case studies are presented in order to show its great potential to rapidly appreciate the aeroelastic behavior of a given design, irrespective of the maturity level of the design itself. Stress Analysis of a Morphing System. Morphing structures have the greatest potential to dramatically improve aircraft aerodynamic performance.

They are designed to accomplish with a single device what conventional mechanisms can do with major aerodynamic penalties.

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Aircraft Structures

In doing In doing so, such systems have to be flexible enough to deliver the desired motion while ensuring a certain structural response under operative loads. In this chapter, focus is given to the structural design of morphing structures. The objective is to develop a generalized scheme, spanning from stress analysis to material selection, to design morphing devices that can morph one shape to another with minimum error. After a brief introduction, general design guidelines and practical tips are provided to ensure satisfactory mechanical structural performance and durability, with an overview of subcomponents and systems validation, design loads and simulation constraints.

The application of this approach is demonstrated through an adaptive trailing edge device design example, including FE modeling, simulations and results assessment. An Adaptive Trailing Edge. Aircraft wings are usually optimized for a specific design point. However, since they operate in a wide variety of flight regimes, some of these have conflicting impacts on aircraft design, as an aerodynamically efficient configuration in However, since they operate in a wide variety of flight regimes, some of these have conflicting impacts on aircraft design, as an aerodynamically efficient configuration in one instance may perform poorly in others.

Conventional wing structures preclude any significant adaptation to changing conditions; movable surfaces, such as flaps or slats, lead to limited changes of the overall shape with narrow benefits compared with those that could be obtained from a wing structure that is inherently deformable and adaptable. An adaptive trailing edge concept conceived to enhance wing aerodynamic performance in cruise condition is outlined.

The camber of the trailing edge is controlled during flight to compensate the weight reduction following the fuel burning. In this way, the trimmed configuration remains optimal in terms of efficiency lift to drag ratio or minimal drag with positive fallouts on aircraft fuel consumption per flight. The main steps concerning the design of the device are reported, with a special focus on each of its relevant architectural elements. In detail, the skin, the structural skeleton, the actuator, sensor, and control systems are dealt with. Some attention is devoted to aspects that are necessary to come to a finalized product of industrial relevance: namely, the aeroelastic and the safety analyses.


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The former assumes a main relevance because the system has augmented degrees of freedom with respect to a standard layout and then, a more complex dynamic response and a higher risk of instability. The latter is necessary to envisage a future certification process of this kind of device that requires the development of a dedicated path. Morphing Aileron. More severe regulations are growing worldwide due to increasing air traffic in order to reduce fuel consumption and noise. The achievement of challenging targets in terms of pollutant emissions abatement demands for the development of The achievement of challenging targets in terms of pollutant emissions abatement demands for the development of innovative aircraft technologies.

Morphing is one of them and plays an extraordinary role for the improvement of aircraft performance. Many research projects are currently focused on morphing both in US and Europe. Its aim is to investigate morphing structures potential through the design and manufacturing of a full-scale variable camber aileron designed according to the requirements of a regional aircraft. This project was carried out by Italian and Canadian academies, research centers, and leading industries. In this framework, the authors worked on the development of this technology addressing both numerical and experimental activities up to a thorough validation of a physical prototype.

The effective capabilities of the adaptive prototype were proven by means of wind tunnel and ground test campaigns which successfully demonstrated the feasibility and the reliability of a morphing aileron.

Understanding and Applying Structural Dynamics: Dynamics & Aerospace Structures

On the Experimental Characterization of Morphing Structures. A major difficulty in the design of morphing devices for aircraft wings is to reach an adequate compromise between high load-carrying capacity to withstand aerodynamic loads and sufficient flexibility to achieve better aerodynamic A major difficulty in the design of morphing devices for aircraft wings is to reach an adequate compromise between high load-carrying capacity to withstand aerodynamic loads and sufficient flexibility to achieve better aerodynamic performance.

Such counteracting and demanding targets lead to an increased structural complexity whose experimental characterization is a matter of high priority prior to the ultimate physical integration into the aircraft structure. Compared to the passive counterpart, morphing devices enable augmented capabilities by locally adapting wing shape and lift distribution through either a quasistatic or dynamic deflection, with excursions ranging into a few units of degrees, positive and negative.

This chapter provides an overview of the verification approaches suitable for morphing devices ranging from the basic concepts applicable to individual subsystems up to the global experimental analysis of the integrated system. A number of test objectives are illustrated at both component and system level, providing practical tips for the experimental analysis of morphing structures combining both compliant structural systems and multibox self-contained actuation mechanisms.

27. Vibration of Continuous Structures: Strings, Beams, Rods, etc.

Morphing Wings Technologies: Large Commercial Aircraft and Civil Helicopters offers a fresh look at current research on morphing aircraft, including industry design, real manufactured prototypes and certification. This is an invaluable This is an invaluable reference for students in the aeronautics and aerospace fields who need an introduction to the morphing discipline, as well as senior professionals seeking exposure to morphing potentialities.

Practical applications of morphing devices are presented-from the challenge of conceptual design incorporating both structural and aerodynamic studies, to the most promising and potentially flyable solutions aimed at improving the performance of commercial aircraft and UAVs. Morphing aircraft are multi-role aircraft that change their external shape substantially to adapt to a changing mission environment during flight. The book consists of eight sections as well as an appendix which contains both updates on main systems evolution skin, structure, actuator, sensor, and control systems and a survey on the most significant achievements of integrated systems for large commercial aircraft.

Provides current worldwide status of morphing technologies, the industrial development expectations, and what is already available in terms of flying systems Offers new perspectives on wing structure design and a new approach to general structural design Discusses hot topics such as multifunctional materials and auxetic materials Presents practical applications of morphing devices. Wing chamber control architectures based on SMA: Numerical investigations. Benefits in terms of aerodynamic efficiency, aeroelastic behaviour, stability and manoeuvrability performance coming from the adaptive variation of wing geometric e.

In this scenario, more and more efficient architectures based on innovative materials like shape memory alloys, piezoelectrics, magneto-rheologic fluids were ideated and related morphing ability was tested. Due to the large transmitted forces and deformations, for static applications, SMA based-on architectures were implemented. The essential idea of all these architectures is to integrate a SMA actuator, lacking of remarkable structural value, within a classical wing structure or within a suitably designed one. The main disadvantage of such architectures derives by the necessity of deforming a classical structure, not designed for reaching large displacements.

In order to avoid these problems, in this work, the idea of integrating compliant structures by SMA elements, was considered. Some deformation strategies, focused on the wing aft part morphing, were ideated; related performance in terms of vertical displacement and rotation of the trailing edge was estimated by a FE approach. Each architecture is characterised by SMA rod elements able to guarantee large deformations and shape control under aerodynamic loads. The out-of-standards The out-of-standards configuration -characterized by a double vertical tail surmounted by a fully movable horizontal tail and connected to the fuselage by means of two large boomsrepresented the key-reason of a quite challenging proof of compliance to EASA requirements in terms of flutter instability.

Due to the inapplicability of consolidated simplified criteria, rational analyses supported by test evidence were considered mandatory, thus demanding for a wide set of numerical and experimental activities to be performed. In this paper a general overview of such activities has been presented by pointing out the used approaches, analysis methods as well as the numerical tools implemented on their base. Experimental evaluation of vibro-acoustic behaviour of composite fuselage structures realized with embedded viscoelastic damping treatments.

This paper presents an approach to characterize the vibro-acoustic behavior of composite fuselage structures developed using embedded viscoelastic damping treatments; it was assessed within the framework of a national research project This paper presents an approach to characterize the vibro-acoustic behavior of composite fuselage structures developed using embedded viscoelastic damping treatments; it was assessed within the framework of a national research project named A.

The experimental tests were performed in a climatic room in order to simulate a cruise flight temperature level for commercial transport aircraft.

Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics

The real influence of viscoelastic materials on the damping of composite structures is currently unknown. For this reason experimental acquisitions and vibrational data analyses have been performed on both damped with embedded viscoelastic damping treatments and untreated composite fuselage skin coupon. The first analysis step consisted in exciting the structure by means of a mechanical impulse. Within the scientific literature, the commonly employed excitation systems are impulse Hammers or Shaker systems; the first one excites the structure generally only up to Hz while the second, because directly connected to the structure, influences its structural behavior.

Within this activity, an innovative excitation system has been used, which has been conceived and manufactured by the authors. The best temperature interval for the treated composite fuselage skin coupon was evaluated, and the different structural behaviors for both composite fuselage structure treated and untreated were characterized. Moreover, the high number of tests performed permitted to evaluate the confidence interval of the damping estimations and to validate the IRDM modified method by statistical analysis.


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  • Obtained results show that composite fuselage structures realized with embedded viscoelastic damping treatments can be utilized to reduce the transmitted vibration main source of interior structure borne noise [9] and consequently to increase passengers comfort. Improved impulse response decay method IRDM for structural damping measurements.

    Penn State Engineering: Structural Dynamics and Adaptive Structures Research

    This paper presents an experimental method to estimate the structural damping. In aerospace, but also in other sectors, the study of structural damping is very important because it characterizes the structural dynamic behaviour. The vibrations and more generally how they are transmitted in the structure are a topic of great interest for aircraft noise suppression Structure-Borne noise and also for other aerospace applications eg. Many methods for damping measurements in literature are based on modal behaviour of the structure, so the maximum frequency at which they can operate is very limited.

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    The proposed method is able to overcome this limitation and brings some advantages in the study of damping parameters. This method has been implemented starting from the Impulse Response Decay Method IRDM and allows the study at high frequencies and high modal density conditions. The method is based on the application of Hilbert transform directly on the time history of the signal also when it is not possible to isolate the structural modes, thus overcoming the limitations of the methods mentioned above.


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    During the studies it has been shown how, in the tests, the choice of an impulsive excitation is very significant in order to reduce the computational complexity of the extraction algorithm. In fact this choice allows to release the study by the frequency response of the structure, allowing to operate directly in time domain.

    Some devices operating on the function returned by the Hilbert transform permitted to achieve a reduction of numerical errors obtaining results much more reliable and closer to reality. Finally, some results obtained for a fuselage composite skin have been reported, as example of application of aforesaid method. Airfoil morphing architecture based on shape memory alloys. The adaptive structures concept is of great interest in the aeronautical field because of the several benefits which can be accomplished in the design of future aircraft.

    Improvements in terms of aerodynamic efficiency, aero-elastic Improvements in terms of aerodynamic efficiency, aero-elastic behaviour and manoeuvrability were proved by many international studies. The development of new structural architectures implementing and integrating innovative materials is mandatory for succeeding in these critical tasks. The so-called Smart Structure idea is more and more taken into account in aerospace applications Among the family of Smart Materials, Shape Memory Alloys SMAs certainly represents a convenient solution for many static applications.

    In this work, an application for a morphing wing trailing edge is presented as alternative for conventional flap devices. A compliant rib structure has been designed, based on SMA components working both as actuators, controlling wing chamber, and as structural elements, sustaining external aerodynamic loads. The numerical results have been presented in terms of induced displacements and morphed shape. Damping levels induced by morphing skin on an adaptive trailing edge device ATED. The development of aircraft structural morphing devices involves the integration of complex and different systems, interacting and modifying their uncoupled characteristics.

    In detail, when adaptive skins, designed to afford the In detail, when adaptive skins, designed to afford the exceptional deformations needed to achieve morphing capabilities, are integrated into the actuation structural system, mass, stiffness and damping aspects are highly affected. This fact can have relevant impacts for the design process either from the static load-bearing capabilities and the dynamic aeroelastic response, mainly , point of view. In order to properly characterise these important aspects, the manufacture of intermediate demonstrators was decided, not implementing all the design solutions yet but giving emphasis at certain subsystems.

    A mock-up was initially manufactured, whose structural properties ability to carry out loads were simply guaranteed by the elastic skin. University of Bristol.