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In the phenomenon of resonance , a system that vibrates at some natural frequency is subjected to external vibrations of the same frequency; as a result, the system resonates , or vibrates at a large amplitude. The sequence of frequencies defined by equation 25 , known as the overtone series , plays an important part in the analysis of musical instruments and musical tone quality.

Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si…

If the fundamental frequency is the note G 2 at the bottom of the bass clef, the first 10 frequencies in the series will correspond closely to the notes shown in Figure 5. Here the frequencies of the octaves harmonics 1, 2, 4, and 8 are exactly those of the notes shown, but the other frequencies of the overtone series differ by a small amount from the frequencies of the notes on the equal-tempered scale. The seventh harmonic is quite out of tune when compared with the actual note, so it is enclosed in parentheses.

During the Middle Ages in Europe, keyboard instruments were sometimes tuned to a scale in which the primary chords were true frequencies of the overtone series. This tuning method, called just intonation , provided beatless chords, because the notes in the chord were members of a single overtone series.

The fundamental frequency of a stretched string is inversely proportional to the length of the string, keeping the tension and the mass per unit length of the string constant:. The fundamental frequency of a stretched string is directly proportional to the square root of the tension in the string, keeping the length and the mass per unit length of the string constant:.

The fundamental frequency of a stretched string is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass per unit length of the string, keeping the length and the tension in the string constant:.

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The lower strings of a guitar or violin are made with a greater mass per unit length, and the higher strings made thinner and lighter. This means that the tension in all the strings can be made more nearly the same, resulting in a more uniform sound. In a grand piano , the tension in each string is over pounds, creating a total force on the frame of between 40, and 60, pounds. A large variation in tension between the lower and the higher strings could lead to warping of the piano frame, so that, in order to apply even tension throughout, the higher strings are shorter and smaller in diameter while the bass strings are constructed of heavy wire wound with additional thin wire.

This construction makes the wires stiff, causing the overtones to be higher in frequency than the ideal harmonics and leading to the slight inharmonicity that plays an important part in the characteristic piano tone. In a manner analogous to the treatment of standing waves in a stretched string, it is possible to carry out an analysis of the structure of standing waves in air columns.


If two identical sinusoidal waves move in opposite directions in a column of air, a standing wave of the same frequency will be formed, just as it is in a string. The standing wave will consist of equally spaced nodes and antinodes with a loop length equal to one-half wavelength in air. This helps compensate for less keys.

But mobile has the super-button that trumps all keys and the mouse of a fully fledged desktop PC even. We have 2D barcodes and the camera! We don't need to do ANY typing. We just point the phone at the square squibble and hit one key and voila - the intended text appears on our screen.

But only on a cameraphone not on the PC.. And then the top end phone rushes far beyond the best of the laptops with its variety of more inputs. Pictures direct from the inbuilt camera.

Sound directly from the microphone think podcasts. Video direct from the inbuilt camera. Touch screens like the iPhone.

Motion sensors like the iPhone. Even better than that - automated data inputs - GPS inputs and location data from the network. The mobile can do far more inputs than the typical laptop or PC. No, screen size and keypad are not barriers to mobile success. They are factors, of course, but mobile is the most versatile input and output media device ever created. Most versatile.

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Not the dumb crippled cousin of the laptop.. Industry size and growth rate. Cinema is the smallest of the seven mass media roughly speaking worth 50 billion dollars. Recordings are second, worth in round terms bilion. Then come three of nearly same size, at roughly billion - radio, internet and mobile. The two giants are print and TV at about half a trillion dollars in annual revenues.

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Print is in decline. TV, recordings, radio and cinema are relatively stable. The internet is growing. But mobile is growing the fastest. It is already bigger than cinema and recordings. Mobile is the fastest growing mass media channel. And it will become bigger than radio and the internet this year.

And in only four years mobile will be bigger than the global print industry. I don't mean newspapers or magazines or books. I mean all print, newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets, junkmail, posters, billboards - combined. And in 5 years mobile data will become the biggest mass media of them all by annual revenues, bigger even than TV. Yes, it has the biggest reach. Yes it is always with us when we consume any other media content.

Yes it can cannibalize any other mass media. Yes it is the natural end-state of all media convergence.

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And yes it is growing fastest and will in only a few years become the biggest mass media channel on the planet. This is the biggest economic opportunity of your professional career no matter how old or young you are. If you are currently in the media, adertising, IT or telecoms indsutries, you should get yourself into the fastest growing and most profitable sector teh fastest you possibly can. It is the best career with the best salaries and best promotions and best career achievements than any other option. The more you wait, the more your peers move ahead of you.

Remember ALL trends point to mobile. ALL of them. Mobile is far more complex than rocket science. That is why there are such big opportunities in it. The old legacy mass media are well known. There are not many new exciting opportunities in those. Most of the legacy media is copying and doing again the old tired ideas. The internet still has a lot of growth and opportunity for invention and innovation. But the internet is very weak at monetizing its medium. Mobile is the opposite. Mobile is so powerful at monetizing content, that it is used to generate content to all other mass media.

Yes, even books.

Nonchord tone

Mobile is the newest mass media. It is the most complex mass media. It is the least understood mass media.