e-book A Glossary of the European Union (Politics Glossaries)

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Introduced by the treaty of Maastricht, in , it is based on the principle of equality. Parliament shares legislative power equally with the Council on texts proposed by the European Commission. The Parliament and the Council are thus dependent one of the other. This means literally 'sticking together'.

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The jargon term 'promoting social cohesion' means the EU tries to make sure that everyone has a place in society — for example by tackling poverty, unemployment and discrimination. The EU budget includes money known as the 'Cohesion Fund' which is used to finance projects that help the EU 'stick together'. For example, it finances new road and rail links that help disadvantaged regions take a full part in the EU economy. The Cohesion Fund part-finances action in the fields of the environment and transport infrastructure of common interest with a view to promoting economic and social cohesion and solidarity between Member States.

It is a complement to structural funds. This is more correctly known as "committee procedure". It describes a process in which the Commission, when implementing EU law, has to consult special advisory committees made up of experts from the EU countries. Relations between the Commission and the committees are based on models set out in a Council Decision the "Comitology Decision" adopted on 28 June This gives Parliament the right to monitor the implementation of legislative instruments adopted under the codecision procedure. Parliament can object to measures proposed by the Commission, or sometimes the Council, which it considers to be ultra vires.

This procedure is used e. If the Council opposes the Commission's proposal, the Commission must re-examine it. It may submit an amended proposal or a new proposal or may re-submit the same proposal.


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The Council Decision of 28 June replaced that of 13 July , simplifying the system and taking account of the new codecision procedure. The committee system is made more open to scrutiny by Parliament and the general public. Committee documents are more readily accessible to the citizen and are recorded in a public register. With the computerisation of decision-making procedures, the aim is for the full texts of non-confidential documents transmitted to Parliament to be posted on the Internet. This is a procedure for transferring certain matters from the third 'pillar' of the EU to the first 'pillar' so that they can be dealt with using the Community method.

Any decision to use the bridge has to be taken by the Council, unanimously, and then ratified by each Member State. NB: was not extended after These are programmes aiming at complementing the structural funds interventions. This is the EU's usual method of decision-making, in which the Commission makes a proposal to the Council and Parliament who then debate it, propose amendments and eventually adopt it as EU law.

In the process, they will often consult other bodies such as the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. This is eurojargon for 'powers and responsibilities'. It is often used in political discussions about what powers and responsibilities should be given to EU institutions and what should be left to national, regional and local authorities. This usually means the government department or other body responsible for dealing with a particular issue. It is 'competent' in the sense of having the legal power and responsibility.

New framework programme for that aims at encouraging the competitiveness of European enterprises and to enhance innovation in all industrial areas, especially for a better take-up and use of information and communications technologies ICT and to help to develop the information society. It will also promote the increased use of renewable energies and energy efficiency. With small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs as its main target, the programme will support innovation activities including eco-innovation , provide better access to finance and deliver business support services in the regions.

Group of partners, coming from the public or private sector, who associate themselves to develop a project that is financed by the European Commission. Contract established between the partners of a cross-border project, which regulates propriety-linked problems including the exploitation of research results, and specifies elements relative to the validity of the standard contract with the Commission.

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It defines the relationships between the different participants and their level of responsibility regarding the project. It does not repeat the content of the contract, nor disapproves it, but it completes and clarifies details which are specific to the considered consortium, and namely upon technical, commercial, organisational, financial and juridical dispositions. It is an option; the Commission does not interfere in this process.

At present, the EU is founded on four basic treaties that lay down the rules by which it has to operate. These treaties are big and complex, and EU leaders intend to replace them with a single, shorter, simpler document spelling out the EU's purposes and aims and stating clearly who does what. This new document technically known as the 'constitutional Treaty' will be rather similar to the constitution of a country - even though the EU is not, and does not aim to be, a single country.

The text of this new EU Constitution was agreed in June and signed by all the member state governments in October It had to came into force in , but it was not ratified by all the Member States. This text should be ratified by all Member States before that it will come into force in Any legal person, private, public or semi-public, liable under the grant agreement and responsible for the day-to-day co-ordination and management of the project, including the distribution of the Community funds allocated to this project.

The contracting organisation is liable to the Commission. Executor of a contract established with the European Commission. The Commission considers this person as the project manager. This type of agreement does not have the consequences of the association agreement. Its sole aim is to promote close economic cooperation with some countries or regions such as the Maghreb and Machrek regions. Type of project support and funding scheme in the framework programme for research.

In June , EU leaders meeting in Copenhagen set three criteria that any candidate country see above must meet before it can join the European Union. First, it must have stable institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for minorities. Second, it must have a functioning market economy. Third, it must take on board all the acquis see above and support the various aims of the European Union.

In addition, it must have a public administration capable of applying and managing EU laws in practice. The EU reserves the right to decide when a candidate country has met these criteria and when the EU is ready to accept the new member. There are three different European bodies with the word 'council' in their names: The European Council This is the meeting of heads of State and government i.

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The European Council meets, in principle, four times a year to agree overall EU policy and to review progress. The Council of the European Union Formerly known as the Council of Ministers, this institution consists of government ministers from all the EU countries. The Council meets regularly to take detailed decisions and to pass European laws. It is an intergovernmental organization based in Strasbourg and it aims amongst other things to protect human rights, to promote Europe's cultural diversity and to combat social problems such as xenophobia and intolerance.

The Council of Europe was set up in and one of its early achievements was to draw up the European Convention on Human Rights. To enable citizens to exercise their rights under that Convention it set up the European Court of Human Rights. Cross-border co-operation CBC under the Phare programme aims to encourage economic convergence through integration and thus to prevent the creation of economically less favoured peripheral zones.

It concerns the management of the candidate countries' border regions with neighbouring countries. Welcome to welcomeurope.


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Indexes an extensive number of articles, government reports, pamphlets, and books in various languages, though publications in English predominate. Most journals are indexed selectively. Arranged in five major sections. Includes author and title index. Provides non-evaluative abstracts from political science journals Index from around the world. Abstracts are grouped according to broad tables topic and are accessible through a subject index. Most abstracts are in English though some are in French.

A comprehensive source for news, business, and legal information, with full text and abstracts. Includes foreign news sources, major U. Newspapers are updated several times daily, and wire services hourly. Issues of linguistic and cultural policy, multilingualism and translation are covered with articles in numerous languages. This is a bibliographic index with abstracts covering the full range of political, social, and public policy issues. Topics covered include economic, political, and social issues, business, finance, law, international trade and relations, public administration, government, political science, and any topics that are or might become the subject of legislation.

The database covers selected journal articles, books, statistics, yearbooks, directories, conference proceedings, pamphlets, reports, government documents, and microfiche. More than 1, journals and over 8, monographs are indexed each year. Coverage includes documents published worldwide in any of six languages: English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish.

The subject headings and abstracts are in English. Furnishes statistics, papers, and selected special reports on the member countries of OECD; covers various aspects of economies including education, economy, infrastructure, and trade.